Aqua, Polyvinylpyrrolidone, Gold Solution Colloidal.
Characteristic features of REGEN-JOINT:
Color: maroon – red UV-VIS Spectrum Average size of gold nanoparticles
Viscosity at 37.2 ° C pH
Why do we use gold nanoparticles in REGEN-JOINT instead of ionic forms (silver ions, gold ions)?
In REGEN-JOINT: gold nanoparticles, metallic, non-ionic (10 – 20 nm).
- Gold nanoparticles are characterized by strong biological effects: antibacterial and antifungal (proved scientifically, effective inhibition: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans).
- They support anti-inflammatory action by blocking activity of i.a. COX-2 (Cyclooxygenase 2 – an inducible form whose expression takes place only in tissues involved in inflammatory process and its inhibition is crucial for action of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and by inhibiting action of Interleukin-1 beta via -SH and -NH2 group binding to gold surface characterized by high surface energy (activity of nanoparticles).
- The size of gold nanoparticles in REGEN-JOINT is 10-20 nm (compared with ions: 0.85 Å – 0.085 nm). Their size, large active surface and high surface energy significantly affect adsorption properties, reactivity of materials and antimicrobial activity. Strong interaction of gold nanoparticles with polymer allows catching inflammatory proteins, neutralizing their action and enabling regeneration process to start.
- Gold nanoparticles surrounded by polymer are characterized by plasticity – between structures of joint they have ability to deform while the joint is working and then they return to the original shape.
- Solution of gold ions is yellow, while solution of gold nanoparticles depends on concentration and it is from pink to maroon-red (ruby). The color of gold nanoparticles (this also applies to silver nanoparticles; here the color varies from yellow to brown) is the result of their specific interaction with light.
- Ions have no plastic properties, they cannot be surrounded by polymer like nanoparticles, hence they do not have a cushioning function in joint. They are quickly removed from body by rinsing out of joints. The silver ions themselves react with chloride ions and form a silver chloride; compound which precipitates (falls out of solution) and consequently loses its supporting properties.
In REGEN-JOINT: PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone):
- Safe biomaterial used for many years in the following products: blood products, pharmaceuticals (production of medicines), ophthalmology, in vascular surgery (stents), hydrogel dressings, cosmetology and food industry.
- Polymer is difficult to decompose in joint due to lack of its specific degradation enzymes as in case of e.g. hyaluronic acid (hyaluronidase) or collagen (collagenase).
- In REGEN-JOINT polymer is indispensable stabilizer of gold nanoparticles, which does not allow them to agglomerate (to accumulate), therefore it has a positive effect on size (small dispersion size), shape and durability in long term retaining their beneficial properties for a long time and safety for body.
- Due to developed and patented method gold nanoparticles are surrounded by proper polymer, hence they behave like „oiled balls in the bearing” significantly reducing the friction that can occur in joints. Under pressure of working joint they will deform, then they will return to the original shape. It has direct translation into the efficiency, reliability and durability of product as indicated by tribological testing of polyvinylpyrrolidone.
- Polymer coating also forms an effective matrix in release of drug substances, e.g. in ischemic heart disease.